WOCA Short Course

The Science of Ash Utilization

This short course will cover basic information about the science and technology of coal combustion by-products. It will be taught by leading experts from academia and industry in two parallel tracks, offering more choices for students.

Faculty: - See Below
Title: The Science of Ash Utilization
Date: Monday, May 8, 2017
Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Meals: Continental breakfast 7:30 a.m. to 8:30 a.m.; Lunch provided 12:00 to 1:00 p.m.
PDH: Six professional development hours (PDH) will be awarded on completion of this course.
Location: Lexington Convention Center

Short Course Registration - (Monday, May 8, 2017)

NOTE: Individual sessions are subject to changes in topic and/or times.


World of Coal Ash Conference 2017 Short Course
May 8, 2017
The Science of Coal Ash Utilization
Time and Track Time and Track

Introduction to Coal Combustion Products (CCPs)
Moderator: Anne Oberlink, UK CAER

Moderator: Bob Jewell, UK CAER

Monday Morning
Monday Morning
Coal Ash Quality - How to turn an Industrial by-product into a Strategic Construction Material on Material
Tom Robl, UK CAER

Topics: Coal ash is the single most important pozzolanic additive to con crete know. Without it high performance concrete is difficult to formulate at reasonable cost. However, power plan t operational issues and closing have resulted in a need to beneficiate ash to meet quality standards. Coal ash quality is generally defined for its properties is specific applicatio ns. For use in concrete, there are three primary parameters of importance: loss of ignition (LOI), fineness and uni formity. Loss on ignition is a surrogate measurement for carbon, which interferes with air entrainm ent agents (AEA) in concrete. It also darkens the ash and the concrete. Fineness is usually measure buy the amount of ash that is retained on 45 -micron screen (325 mesh) which is set at 34% by weight in ASTM standards, it is related to the pozzolanic activity of the ash and how the ash contrib utes to the rheology of the concrete. and finally, uniformity which limits the variation of both density and fineness to 5% for 50 random samples of any ash shipment of course consistence is of value in any product. There are many other standards such as maximum sulfate concentration, strength activity index, moisture and the like but these three are generally present the most difficulty in meeting qualit y requirements. There are a host of technologies available to process ash. These include selective collection, air classification, electrostatic separation, thermal beneficiation and chemical passivation. As plants, close interest in methodology to recover ash from ponds and landfills is also gaining interest. These include froth flotation, wet screening, hydrocyclones, hydraulic classifiers and c oncentrators and finally thermal driers.
Environmental Emergency Response: Lessons from the Kingston and Dan River Ash Spills
Neil Carriker, TVA

Topics: There is a time-honored adage that ? There are only two things in life that are certain -- death and taxes! ? In an environmental emergency response there are at least three things that are certain -- chaos, confusion, and criticism. The initial objective of any emergency respon se is to move as quickly as possible from chaos and confusion to managed response and recovery. An equally important objective is to minimize the inevitable criticisms of response efforts that begin almost immediately by ensuring information presented to the public is accurate and timely. This p resentation summarizes key lessons from the Kingston and Dan River spills that can be applied to other envi ronmental emergency responses. Moving quickly to manage spilled materials, to accurately assess environmental damages, to ensure data collected is of the highest quality, and to begin rebuilding publ ic trust are among the most important lessons of the Kingston and Dan River spills. These and other lessons from these two spill responses will be described in more detail with examples of both successes and failures.

9:15am-10:00am 9:15am-10:00am
Use of Low Lime Fly Ash in Concrete
Rod Jones, University of Dundee

Topics: The use of fly ash in concrete is one of its main applica tions and has a history that can be traced to at least the 1920 ' s, however, the material came to wider prominence in th e 1930 ' s with the construction of large dams in the USA. Somewhat dormant until the 1980 ' s, fly ash use rapidly took off worldwide when its role to improve durability became recognised, rather than somet hing just to control heat. The marketing campaign Dz fly ash makes good concrete better dz was successful and in many countries the majority of concrete is now supplied with either fly ash or slag. Most countries have now developed mature national standard for fly ash, which can be added directly to c oncrete as a separate ingredient at the mixer or as a component of a blended cement.

Turning the Corner: CCR Management in 2017
Mark Rokoff, AECOM

Topics: With the CCR Rule published and now effective, the market has seen a number of c hanges that has left it forever impacted ... but where can it be expected to go? This presentation will answer this q uestion and focus on the assessment of the direction the market will be likely taking. More specifically, an assessment of the market will be presented as we enter the effective period of the CCR Rule. Topics that will be discussed will include the following: What activities (compliance, closures, conversions, etc.) can be anticipat ed over the next 5+ Years / Other drivers (states adopting the rules, ELG rule, etc.) that will impac t CCR management / How is the industry (utilities, engineers, contractors) responding and prepari ng for this next period / What trends are developing and are anticipated in this industry A high level discussion of costs will also be covered After presenting the backdrop of the changing market, the presentation will shift to focus on how the industry can prepare for these developing and upcoming trends and market changes to address the future of effective CCR management.
10:00am-10:45am 10:00am-10:45am
Non-cementitious Applications of Coal Ash
Richard Kruger, Richonne Consulting

Topics: While coal ash is effectively used in cementitious appli cations there are many other opportunities where the other characteristic properties o f coal ash can be advantageously exploited. The presentation will highlight a range of applicatio ns for where the chemical and morphological characteristics are utilised. Topics to be discussed include Agricultural applications, Mi ne rehabilitation, Functional fillers for polymers, Mineral recovery, Refractories, Clay bricks. Examples of current commercial use as well as research ende avours will be presented so that delegates are given a broad overview of the use of co al ash in non-cementitious applications.

Drainage and Stabilization of Fly Ash Ponds: A Speciality Contractor's Perspective
Paul Schmall, Moretrench

Topics: There are a number of techniques that ca n be used to stabilize fly ash. Drainage techniques run the gamut from rim ditching and sumping to wellpoints and deep wells. In some conditions, the ash cannot be drained and geotextiles and geogrids must be used to bridge over the ash. D ifferent conditions warrant different approaches. Rim ditching and sumping may be the most appropriate technique if time is available. Dewaterin g with deep wells and wellpoints may be a faster, safer and more reliable method in some cases. Previous improperly applied dewatering techniques have led to the belief that this approach will not work in ash - which is not the case. With some foreknowledge of geotechnical conditions, pre-drainage dewatering can-and does-work very well. When free interstitial water is removed, saturated ash deposits transition to a workable soil-like material with excellent "stand- up time". Near vertical cuts can be made for excavation. However, there is no "one size fits all" solution. Every pond has its own personality, with a number of unique hydrogeological aspects. There are several steps in the evaluation of conditions, beginning with early field tests to evaluate th e hydraulic properties of the ash and the achievable yield from properly built and representative production wells or wellpoints through to the selection and implementation of de watering or drainage techniques.
10:45am-11:00am Coffee Break 10:45am-11:00am Coffee Break
11:00am-11:45am 11:00am to 11:45am
FGD Uses in Agriculture: Status of Federal Regulations and Support
Allen Torbert, USDA

Topics: In 2008, a catastrophic spill of coal ash prompted EPA to conduct a n assessment of the regulation associated with handling of coal combustion Re sidues (CCR) and for the management of these materials at facilities nationwide. While the concern was initiated with the spill associated with coal ash, the evaluation included all CCR products regulated under RCRA, which included FGD gypsum. As a result, in 2010 the EPA propos ed regulations under RCRA to address the disposal of CCRs. Initially, the EPA propose d two regulatory options: 1) continue to regulate under Subtitle D, or 2) regulate under the more restr ictive Subtitle C. After extensive study during the rulemaking process, EPA established regulati ons under Subtitle D and the final rule was effective on Oct. 14, 2015. Changes in the new rule s primarily focused on managing of CCR in landfills and holding ponds. But it did cover the uti lization of CCR for " beneficial use " . In the rule, the encapsulated use of CCR for beneficial us e is very clear since the uses are well established and risk assessments had been conducted. More pr oblematic to EPA were the unencapsulated uses, of which FDG use in agriculture was included. In the rule, the EPA allows for the CCR products to be exempt from the landfill rules and otherwise be utilized if it meets the definition of " beneficial use " . The final definition of the term " Beneficial Use of CCR " involves meeting 4 criteria: 1) CCR must provide a functional benefit ; 2) CCR must substitute for the use of a virgin material, conserving natural resources that would ot herwise need to be obtained through practices, such as extraction; 3) the use of CCR m ust meet relevant product specifications, regulatory standards, or design standards,... , CCR may not be used in excess quantities; and 4) when unencapsulated use of CCR involving plac ement on the land, the user must demonstrate that environmental releases are comparabl e to or lower than those from analogous products made without CCR.
Groundwater Remediation Overview: Options for Today and The Future
Ken Ladwig and Bruce Hensel, EPRI

Topics: Title: Groundwater Remediation Overview: Options for Today and the Future Abstract Groundwater monitoring requirements under the CCR rule are expected to increase the need for corrective actions, especially at unlined ash ponds. Achieving ground water remediation goals may be due to the age of the facility, the range of geochemical behaviors associated with inorganic constituents present in coal ash, and the requirement for some constituents to be remediated to background levels. This presentation will discuss regulatory drivers for corrective actions, role of risk assessment, existing remediation technologies, promising new technologies, and costs.

Introduction to Coal Combustion Products (CCPs) con't Ponds con't
1:15pm-2:00pm 1:15pm-2:00pm
Commercial Development of the Agricultural Market for FGD Gypsum
Bob Spoerri, Beneficial Reuse

Topics: Beneficial use of byproduct FGD gypsum from coal fired power plants in agricultural applications has grown significantly in recent years. For many utiliti es, agriculture now represents a high potential alternative to the wallboard and cement markets for beneficial use of FGD gypsum. This presentation will trace the history of h ow the agricultural market has developed and the supply and demand factors that wil l define its future. Why farmers have become interested in using byproduct gypsum in agricul tural applications will be addressed as well as the agronomic, regulatory, logist ical, economic and marketing challenges that have been encountered as the market has evolved.

Citizen Enforcement of the CCR Rule: How Will Enforcement Actions Be Brought, and What Can You Do to Prepare for Them
Josh More and MIchael Showalter, Schiff Hardin

Topics: Until a state or EPA adopts a permit program i n accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the CCR Rule is self-implementi ng, meaning it imposes minimum federal criteria with which CCR units must comply without any additional action by a state or federal regulator. While the Water Infrastructure Imp rovements for the Nation Act authorizes EPA to enforce the CCR Rule, citizen enforcement is an ticipated and utilities should be prepared to defend against them. This presentation will provide an overview of the CCR Rule compliance scheme, a summary of the procedural req uirements for bringing a citizen suit, and practical solutions for defending citizen act ions.
2:00pm-2:45pm 2:00pm-2:45pm
FGD Gypsum - Resource Recovery Material Use In Manufactured Products
Danny Gray, Charah

Topics: As part of the US response to the 1973 Oil Embargo and result ing energy crisis coupled with the revelations of the Love Canal hazardous chemical disposal incident, the US Congress passed an impactful piece of legislation which now today, after amendments, affects t he CCP generation and recycling industry. The Resource Conservation & Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) established a national objectives and policy goal to conserve valuable material and energy resources ...? from materials that were destined for landfill disposal. More specifically, the RCRA law states that ... " The Congress finds with respect to materials, that ...millions of tons of recoverable material which could be used are needlessly buried each year " and that " the recovery and conservation of such materials can reduce the dependence of the United States on foreign res ources and reduce the deficit in its balance of payments. " Coal Combustion Products (CCP) are a true success story that fits Congress ' stated goals and objectives defined in RCRA. And while we struggle to find regulations which support Congress ' express directive in RCRA, the CCP recycling industry has survived and m et the challenges of conserving resources and reducing our dependence on foreign resources. FGD Gypsum use in manufactured products such as wallboard, cement and agriculture fertilizers meets the Congressional mandate and makes the products used in our everyday lives better and more cost competitive.

Fly Ash Pond Closurers: the role of instrumentation on the stabilization of saturated fly ash deposits
Pedro Amaya, AEP

Topics: Pond closures required the stabilization of the saturated fly ash subgrade to at least the level necessary to support the equipment use to obtain the desired gr ades. The characterization of the fly ash deposits that is performed during the engineerin g and design of the pond closure often is the basis for the development of an initial subgrade stab ilization strategy. However, while this initial construction plan may be successfully implemented in large portions of the subgrade, it is recognized that there will be sections of th e fly ash pond where the initial plan would need to be adjusted to negotiate weaker subgrade conditio ns successfully. In an effort to assess the need and the successful implementation of an altern ative subgrade stabilization strategy for the pond closure, there is the need to rely on the observational method and localized instrumentation data. During this presentation, ther e will be a review and a discussion on the role of instrumentation on the stabilization of satur ated fly ash deposits.

2:45pm-3:00pm Coffee Break 2:45pm-3:00pm Coffee Break


  Combined Track
Moderator: Tom Robl, UK CAER
Combined Session
International Perspective
Tomas Szczygielski, President of the Polish CCP Union
Topics: Changes that are taking place in the ash industry globally, and the great new opportunities that will occur in the next few years. Towards Zero Waste Coal Power strategy as an element of the Circular Economy. 1. Global electricity production, coal ash volume, rates of utilization, 2. International trade of CCP and future generation 3. Weaknesses of the present approach to coal ash utilization, 4. Circular economy application in relation to coal ash solutions, 5. Anthropogenic minerals (AM) are not waste, 6. Improvement of chemical composition and physical properties of AM to the product technical specifications in power generation processes, 7. Role of power generation sector, science, administration and business in this new approach, 8. Road Map elements and implementation of the strategy
Combined Session
International Perspective - Can Asian suppliers meet global demand?
David Harris, Chairman of the Asian Ash Association
Topics: Growth in global fly ash supplies will be driven by coal-fired energy production China, India and Southeast Asia. The economic advantages of coal power in these markets include lower financial c osts per unit of power, a large and relatively young fleet of installed capacity, and a domestic industry hi ghly geared to coal-power related equipment supply, fuel supply and operations. Additionally, China and India rank 4 th and 5 th in the world by coal reserves respectively (behind the USA and Russia). For both countries, domestic coal reserves and installed capacity have strategic value in that they support national energy independence. Based on coal and construction material consumption forecasts China and India are expected to have combined surplus fly ash supplies in the hundreds of millions of tons through 2030 and beyond. At the same time, quantity and quality of supplies are diminishing in developed markets. Relative demand i s high in geographies such as California, Western Europe and the Middle East, where ash utilization techniques are advanced and cons truction material standards allow for high levels of substitution in cement, concrete and other applications. This talk will provide an overview of patterns of supply and demand in As ia, with an emphasis on China. Procurement challenges will be discussed, focusing on quality control management, l ogistics requirements, and modeling total delivered costs for dry bulk and bagged ash shipments.
Combined Session
Open Q&A Session
Open Floor Question and Answer Session with speakers from all sessions/all talks.


Any questions should be directed to:

Ms. Alice Marksberry
University of Kentucky
Center for Applied Energy Research
2540 Research Park Drive
Lexington, KY 40511-8410, USA
Phone: 859-257-0311
Fax: 859-257-0220