WOCA Short Course

The Science of Ash Utilization

This short course will cover basic information about the science and technology of coal combustion by-products. It will be taught by leading experts from academia and industry in two parallel tracks, offering more choices for students.

Faculty: - See Below
Title: The Science of Ash Utilization
Date: Monday, May 4, 2015
Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Meals: Continental breakfast 8:00 a.m. to 8:30 a.m.; Lunch provided 12:00 to 1:00 p.m.
PDH: Six professional development hours (PDH) will be awarded on completion of this course.
Location: Renaissance Hotel Nashville

Short Course Registration - (Monday, May 4, 2015)

  • Fee - $300.00 US with conference registration
  • Fee - $375.00 US short course only - (if register prior or on to April 1, 2015)
  • Fee - $475.00 US short course only - (if register after April 1, 2015)
  • Short Course Registration Form - located on this webpage

NOTE: Individual sessions are subject to changes in topic and/or times.


World of Coal Ash Conference 2015 Short Course
May 4, 2015
The Science of Coal Ash Utilization
Time Tracks Time Tracks

  Coal Combustion Ash
Moderator: Bob Jewell, UK CAER
  Flue Gas Desulfurization--(FGD)
Moderator: Anne Oberlink, UK CAER
Monday Morning
Introduction to Coal Combustion Ash
Robert Jewell, UK CAER

Topics: The goal of this presentation is to provide an introduction to coal combustion ash including ... Use of coal in the United States; How coal is formed and what are the various ranks; Types of coal mining and combustion technologies; A description of coal combustion products (CCPs); A discussion on the physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of coal combustion products; The standards and specifications for CCPs.
Monday Morning
Introduction to Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD)
Anne Oberlink, UK CAER

Topics: Flue-gas desulfurization is a group of technologies that are used to remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) from flue gas in a variety of ways. Due to the removal of the sulfur dioxide (SO2), byproduct materials are formed. This talk will give a brief introduction of flue gas desulfurization, including where the byproduct material comes from, and the nature of the material.

9:00am-9:45am The Role of Fly Ash in Cement and Concrete Applications
Brett Tempest, UNC Charlotte

Topics: This presentation will provide a physical and engineering description of CCR materials and examples of existing and emerging beneficial uses relevant to construction and infrastructure. A focus will be on the material science aspects of the fly ash that enable them to improve the quality of concrete in terms of workability, strength and durability. The presentation will also address more contemporary applications such as geopolymer concretes and other materials that do not include Portland cement.

9:00am-9:45am Use of FGD Gypsum in Agriculture
Lamar Larrimore, Southern Company

Topics: This information describes a brief general background on wet FGD (flue gas desulfurization) gypsum applications, including gypsum production quantities and physical/chemical/engineering properties. Agriculture is emphasized here, since this is developing quickly with significant growth potential. Southern Company has worked with growers and distributors to develop a network of more than 100 agronomic demonstration sites in the southeastern United States. These sites have been established over a 12-year period and include a variety of crops, soil types, and locations.

Data includes crop yield and environmental information, primarily soil and plant tissue analysis. Outstanding average yield increases ranging from 10-50% have been observed for all plants tested - including peanuts, cotton, tomatoes, watermelon, cantaloupes, alfalfa, hay, soybeans, grass, and pine trees. Environmental data shows no increase in trace element concentrations for gypsum plots compared to the adjacent control plots where no gypsum was applied.
9:45am-10:30am Coal Ash Processing Technologies
Jinder Jow, National Institute of Clean-and-Low-Carbon Energy, China

Topics: Not all coal ashes are produced from the same combustion processes or using the same coal types or sources. Coal ash includes fly ash and bottom ash. But every coal ash has the same 3 fundamental properties: particle size and its distribution, chemical compositions, and mineral compositions. The variations in these fundamental properties are directly related to its coal source and type, coal pretreatment, combustion process, and coal ash collection system. Among these 3 fundamental properties, particle size distribution (fineness) has the widest variations, while chemical compositions, except unburned carbon (Loss of Ignition, LOI), and mineral compositions are fix for each given coal-fired power plant process and coal used. Various processing technologies are presented in this talk to improve the fineness or reduce LOI of coal ash, particularly fly ash, wet or dry, for desired applications. Other beneficiation technologies may be also presented to extract the value of coal ash based on its unique fundamental properties.

9:45am-10:30am FGD as Engineering Materials
William Wolfe, Ohio State University

Topics: Flue Gas Desulfurization materials (FGD) have been used in a variety of construction applications as replacements for natural materials. In this presentation, the engineering properties of FGD are examined and assessed. Conventional laboratory scale tests are discussed and the measured properties presented. These results are followed up by a discussion of the results of full scale demonstration projects in which the behavior of FGD as placed is evaluated.

Two beneficial uses of FGD materials in high-volume applications will be discussed. In the first, the use of 1.2 Million tons of FGD (calcium sulfite and gypsum) and fly ash in the reclamation of a dangerous, abandoned highwall will be discussed. In the second, the results of a study in which an FGD layer was installed as a low permeability/treatment liner for a 1Million gallon animal waste facility at an OSU animal research farm will be presented.

When FGD materials are properly incorporated into construction projects, they can be an economically and environmentally attractive alternative to natural materials. This is particularly true in projects where incorporating FGD into the design can reduce offsite sedimentation, remediate subsidence, and eliminate safety hazards.

10:30am-11:00am Coffee Break 10:30am-11:00am Coffee Break
  Coal Combustion Ash, con't.
Moderator: Bob Jewell, UK CAER
  Environmental Issues
Moderator: Anne Oberlink, UK CAER
11:00am-11:45am ASTM/Analytical Testing and Classification of Fly Ash
Brian Strazisar, RJ Lee Group

Topics: The physical and chemical properties of coal ash can vary widely based on fuel and combustion conditions at the source. There are several methods that can be used to classify fly ash based on chemical composition and pozzolanic/cementitious behavior. The most widely used method is ASTM C311, which uses the standard classifications defined in ASTM C618. This method includes physical and chemical characterization of the ash itself, as well as evaluation of performance in mortar specimens prepared according to standard procedure. However, several studies have questioned whether the methods used in ASTM C311 provide a fair evaluation that correlates to actual performance in concrete mixes. This presentation will provide an overview of fly ash testing and classification as well as a discussion of the inherent limitations of standard procedures.
11:00am-11:45pm Environmental Performance of CCP Use Applications
Ken Ladwig, EPRI
Bruce Hensel, EPRI, is a co-instructor.

Topics: Beneficial use in construction applications is preferred to disposal for management of CCPs. Green construction utilizing fly ash and FGD gypsum can provide significant life cycle advantages in carbon footprint, electricity and water use, and conservation of natural resources compared to virgin materials. This short course will explore the environmental performance of CCPs in construction applications, including the application of US EPA's new Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework for testing CCPs and evaluating potential risks associated with use applications. The course will also consider the changing characteristics of CCPs and how they might affect beneficial use options in the future.
11:45am-12:30pm The Nature and Use of Ponded Fly Ash
Michael McCarthy, University of Dundee, Scotland

Topics: Substantial quantities of ponded fly ash have been stored at power stations over many years, given the levels remaining unused following production. This represents a major source of material, with potential for various applications. The presentation will consider the feasibility of recovering and using this fly ash in construction. It will begin by describing research to investigate the effects of wet storage on the properties of fly ash (considering both stockpile and ponded) and illustrate the physical and chemical changes occurring in the material as a result of this. It will then considered field work that has been carried out to examine the distribution and characteristics of fly ash within storage areas. This indicates that material in ponds tends to be heterogeneous, reflecting its size/composition and the transportation to storage.

These effects influence options with regard to recovery, and the use of specially developed systems for fly ash, including, froth flotation for carbon removal and hydraulic classification to separate into various particle size ranges, will be described. Results from these at both pilot and full scales, illustrating the physical and chemical properties and yields achievable, will be reviewed and compared with the requirements of fly ash standards. The presentation will then focus on recovered fly ash in concrete, covering fresh and hardened properties, and making comparisons with that containing recently produced material. It will also highlight the potential for the use of recovered material in other applications.
11:45am-12:30pm Putting Toxicity and Risk into Context for CCP Disposal and Beneficial Use
Lisa Bradley, Haley & Aldrich, Inc.

Topics: Although EPA's rulemaking for coal combustion products (CCPs) or residuals (CCRs) will be concluded with the Rule's publication in the Federal Register, enforcement via citizen lawsuits will just be beginning. Misconceptions about coal ash abound and, therefore, it is still important to put toxicity and risk into context with respect to CCPs, especially for a public that is not necessarily well versed in science or in the evaluation of human health risk. This presentation will provide an overview of the basic concepts risk assessment. The potential for contact with CCPs in the environment will be addressed, both for disposal and for beneficial uses of CCPs. CCPs are a product of a natural material (coal) and as such are made up of constituents naturally present in our environment - comparisons of constituent concentrations between CCPs and natural and man-made materials will be provided for context.



  Combined Track
Moderator: Tom Robl, UK CAER
Combined Session
Past As Prelude? U.S. Coal Ash Regulations: History and Outlook
John Ward, John Ward, Inc.
Topics: On December 19, 2014, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced its Final Rule for Disposal of Coal Combustion Residuals from Electric Utilities, capping more than 30 years of study and prior regulatory determinations and concluding a formal rulemaking process that lasted six years. However, the Final Rule's preamble specifically reserves the right to re-open rulemaking under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Meanwhile, supporters of a legislative approach to settle coal ash regulation permanently are regrouping for potential Congressional action. This session examines the history of U.S. coal ash regulation, the likelihood of renewed activity by EPA, and the probable contours of any Congressionally mandated regulatory system.
Combined Session

Ash Marketing - A Dynamic Landscape
Danny L. Gray, Charah, Inc.
Topics: Continuing changes in the regulation of coal combustion residuals is having profound impacts on the beneficial use markets for Coal Combustion Products. EPA's new CCR regulations coupled with MATS and the proposed Clean Power Plan will continue to have negative impacts on the relationships between CCP suppliers, end users, marketing companies and state agencies. The required investments to beneficially utilize CCP mineral resources must increase or markets will shift to alternate products and recycling volumes will be harmed. To continue at high levels of CCP utilization, the construction material industry will need to the changing economics and consumers will likely see higher construction material costs.

Coffee Break
Combined Session

Regulatory & Geotechnical Considerations for Surface Impoundment Closure to Meet the CCR Rule & Avoid Compliance and Constructability Pitfalls
Steven Putrich, Haley & Aldrich, Inc. and John Seymour, Geosyntec Consultants

Topics: With a long list of regulatory compliance and geotechnical considerations associated with closing impoundments under the new CCR Rule, this combined session will look at a pre-selected list of six important subjects, three regulatory/compliance and three geotechnical/constructability in nature. These particular subjects have been selected because of: audience general interest based upon our industry/client experience; their importance in the decision making associated with closure and closure timing, and their relevance to the design and execution of an in-place impoundment closure. More specifically, this combined session will address the following:
Regulatory Issues:
Inactive Status & Unregulated CCRs: Both important conditions will be reviewed and how these can be creatively and cost-effectively implemented by the owner/operator and what is necessary to achieve and inactive or unregulated status. Time to Close & Alternate Timeline Extensions: The time required to close a surface impoundment will be outlined, including the conditions requiring early closure (causal triggers, etc.) will also be discussed along with alternate timelines that extent the closure timelines with specific justifications. Impoundment Overfills: A high-level overview of the conditions where an impoundment overfill would be recommended, and some pre-design activities and limitations plus the implication of key milestone dates in the Rule will be considered.
Geotechnical Issues:
Impoundment Structural Integrity: Requirements will be reviewed and the inputs and process to calculate factors of safety (for the non-geotechnical engineer) will be discussed. Cover Design: Cover design options will be presented to meet the CCR Rule specific requirements and alternate cover options. Constructability Concerns: Design and constructability issues will be presented to allow the session participant to understand construction approaches that have impacts on the schedule and provides some lessons learned from recent projects.


Any questions should be directed to:

Ms. Alice Marksberry
University of Kentucky
Center for Applied Energy Research
2540 Research Park Drive
Lexington, KY 40511-8410, USA
Phone: 859-257-0311
Fax: 859-257-0220